A cat’s health is 90% up to you, how you care for her and many other factors affect her health.
Theseare the main signs of the disease:
refusal to eat, poor appetite, weight loss or sudden weight gain;
– lethargy or aggression, nervousness;
– redness, skin flaking;
– the appearance of baldness;
– excretion from the eyes, nose;
– high or low temperature;
– blood in the excreta, difficulty urinating or stopping urinating altogether;
– diarrhoea, vomiting.
Common cat diseases
Skin and coat
Very frequent cat diseases are associated with skin and coat problems. The main symptoms of such diseases are: nervousness, constant scratching of the skin, excessive lick and biting, various spots, rashes, the appearance of prolapses.
Most of the skin diseases are directly related to skin parasites such as fleas, ticks, moisture scientists and lice. Pets get sick after walking down the street, coming into contact with rodents and other infected animals. Vermin can get on cat hair from shoes or host clothing. Signs of fleas and lice: the animal scratch a certain area of the body, on the coat you can see traces of insect activity – small black spots. The ear mites are characterised by dark brown plaque in the area of the ears, the cat shakes its head but it’s very difficult to make an accurate diagnosis without a vet.
Fungal skin diseases are not uncommon in cats either – the most famous and most contagious is ringworm, which is particularly dangerous for a young cat. On the face of the disease it manifests itself in the form of reddish bald spots and grayish scabs which are often confused with dandruff. The main cause of ringworm is contact with a sick animal. It should be remembered that many types of mycosis are transmitted from pet to host, so it’s important to notice the symptoms of the cat’s illness on time, otherwise the health of everyone in the house will be compromised.
Cats can also develop skin problems due to an allergic reaction. Allergies are particularly difficult to diagnose because they are similar to other skin pathologies – itching, redness and flaking of the skin on certain parts of the body are also common.
If any of these symptoms appear, it is best to see a dermatologist immediately. With proper and timely intervention, many skin diseases are treated fairly quickly and without significant harm to your pet’s health. Treatment of diseases in most cases is medicated: in the case of parasites and fungi, ointments are used, in case of allergies it is important to stop contact with an irritant in time, to get rid of its symptoms prescribed steroids and healing creams.
Urinary stone disease
Urolithiasis is the most dangerous disease that cats, rather than cats, are most likely to suffer from due to their body structure. An attack of urolithiasis (Urrolithiasis) can occur suddenly – even recently, a healthy animal has been in pain when trying to go to the toilet, meowing. Blood may be visible in the urine. If the vet is not treated in time, the consequences can be extremely serious, up to and including death. The reason for ICBs is usually poor nutrition – poor quality food, regular addition of raw fish and meat, lack of clean drinking water, inherited predisposition, low mobility and obesity.
The disease is diagnosed by a therapist and treated by a nephrologist based on the results of tests. For the treatment of urolithiasis in cats, as a rule, complex methods are used: dietary changes, medicines and homeopathic remedies, lithotripsy (shockwave therapy). In emergency cases, surgical intervention is possible to remove stones.
Infectious diseases in cats
In turn, they are divided into viral, fungal and bacterial infections, depending on the pathogen.
Viral diseases include, for example, serious diseases such as infectious panleukopenia (cat plague), which in some cases instantly kills an animal, coronaviruses, calcivirosis, rabies. Symptoms of viral diseases are different, many are characterized by fever, vomiting, diarrhea, ulcers. Infection most often occurs through contact with a sick animal. Antiviral drugs and serums are used for treatment, their effectiveness depends on the type and stage of the disease.
Among bacterial, the most frequent are infectious anaemia and salmonellosis. In case of anemia, fever increases, sluggishness, refusal of food, pale mucous membranes of the mouth are observed. Salmonellosis is also accompanied by fever and loss of appetite, as well as vomiting and runny nose. Treatment is carried out with the help of antibiotics, feed changes, homeopathic remedies, hyperimmune serums.
Infections caused by fungi affect the external and internal organs of the animal. There are many varieties of such pathologies, depending on the nature of the pathogen: cryptococcosis, candidiasis, histoplasmosis. Diseases the animal at any contact with fungus spores – through the wound, with food, breathing.
Infectious diseases have many subspecies and are characterized by a variety of symptoms, so to diagnose them and determine the treatment plan should be an experienced veterinarian infectiologist.
The main types of eye diseases in cats are not too difficult to identify – they are visible from the outside:
– puffiness, redness of the eyelids;
– blurred lens;
– protrusion of the eyeball;
– pupil dilation, no reaction to light;
– excreta from the eye, transparent or purulent.
If at least one of these symptoms is present in your pet, you should visit a veterinary clinic: diagnosis and treatment should be carried out only by a qualified ophthalmologist. The most common eye diseases in cats are glaucoma, conjunctivitis, cataract, inflammation and corneal wounds. Depending on the type of pathology, antibiotics and ointments are prescribed and in some cases (e.g. cataract) surgery may be necessary.
In addition to the most common disease – ear parasites, which we have already talked about, cats often have other ear diseases: otitis, eczema, hematoma.
The most dangerous are otitis, an inflammation that causes inflammation of the cat’s ears and a large amount of sulfuric and blood secretions. Animals can avoid touching the affected area and react aggressively. Overcooling, injuries, infections and foreign bodies are the most common causes of illness.
The initial examination of the cat if it is suspected of ear disease is carried out by a veterinary therapist, further treatment of the cat depends on the detected problem. In hematoma prescribe surgical removal of blood clots, to cure otitis – a course of antibiotics, with eczema prescribe special ointments.
This group includes a number of diseases such as hepatitis, liver failure, lipidosis. The following symptoms are indicative of the occurrence of liver disease in cats:
– lethargy, loss of appetite;
– vomiting, diarrhea;
– increased liver size, which can be felt on palpation;
– in severe cases, jaundice.
There are many possible causes of illness: poor nutrition, poisoning, drug overdose, lack of vitamins. Diagnosis conducted by a therapist or gastroenterologist. Treatment depends on the detected liver disease, often includes a special diet on medicinal food and taking regenerating drugs.
The most common heart pathology in cats is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or enlargement of the ventricular wall. Statistically, almost every tenth animal encounters the disease. Symptoms of the disease are not always visible to the host – respiratory disorders, loss of appetite, lethargy, rapid fatigue. Meanwhile, the disease is very dangerous, and even with timely treatment, as a rule, for several years leads to death. When such a diagnosis is made, the cat’s cardiologist prescribes maintenance therapy, which can extend the life of the cat and improve its well-being.
Diseases of the stomach and intestines
Intestinal diseases in cats are more likely to be inflammatory. Symptoms are similar to many other pathologies: diarrhoea, vomiting, weight loss, possibly mucus in the excreta, so often the problems with the GIT are confused with other diseases. An accurate diagnosis can be made by a gastroenterologist based on an animal examination and the results of the analysis. Treatment includes a diet (in some cases, even a short term fasting), occasionally supplemented by medication.
Nearly one in five cats has cancer, and aggressive types of cancer are typical of the species. As in humans, diagnosis of oncology in animals is difficult because of the low visibility of symptoms in the early stages, as well as similarities with other diseases. Poor appetite, weight loss, hair dullness, breathing difficulties, swelling, spots, ulcers and swelling on the body, digestive problems may be a reason to contact an oncologist.
Treatment may include chemotherapy and surgery.
Keep in mind that the best way to keep your pet healthy is to prevent illnesses on time. This applies primarily to taking care of your cat’s comfort, a balanced and regular diet and maintaining immunity. And, of course, you shouldn’t give up vaccination – it will help protect your pet from many diseases. But if your cat does get sick, you should get him to a veterinary clinic as soon as possible, where he will be accurately diagnosed and treated by a specialist.